At Saudi Aramco, the protection scheme non-incendive energy limited (Ex nL) is used for Foundation fieldbus (FF) spurs to allow for "live maintenance." The Ex nL was withdrawn from the IEC 60079-151, and replaced with a new intrinsically safe protection method (Ex ic) per the IEC 60079-112. Considering that Ex nL-certified FF devices are gradually diminishing, appropriate studies, solutions and mitigation plans were explored to ensure safety and reliability is maintained with the existing installed base. For grassroots projects, the situation is a bit more complicated because end users have to correctly interpret the new international standards addressing the…Full Story
More than 44 percent say they’re earning more than $100k, yet worries about job security and looming retirements remain high.